complete the multiple choice questions correctly.

Anonymous
timer Asked: Jul 28th, 2018
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Question Description

  • What are some of the unique advantages to using a case-crossover design in environmental epidemiology?
  • Which study design is not feasible with rare exposures?
  • What study design may be appropriate when it is not possible to estimate an effect on the individual level?
  • Which of the following best defines external validity?
  • Ensuring a valid study is most often determined at what stage?
    • The design stage
    • The analysis stage
    • The interpretation stage
    • The generalization stage
  • Analytic statistics are used to assess the distribution of data.
  • Which of the following best describes the null hypothesis?
  • Which of the following best describes statistical inference?
  • Reliability refers to the consistency of the result.
  • Incidence is a better measure of disease risk than prevalence?
  • Prevalence is influenced by which of the following?
  • What type of measure is appropriate for assessing the association between two dichotomous variables in a cohort study?
  • Which of the following statistics indicates the percentage of the disease in the population that can be attributed to the exposure?
  • Which of the following statistics reflects the excess risk of disease among the exposed group attributed to the exposure?
  • What type of measure is appropriate for assessing the association between two dichotomous variables in a case-control study?
  • Which of the following influence the width of the confidence interval for a relative risk or odds ratio?
  • Which type of regression model is most appropriate to use when the outcome variable is categorical?
  • Automatically controls for confounding from time-related factors
  • Yields incidence and prevalence data
  • Effective at studying the effects of short-term exposures on the risk of acute events.
  • Requires less time, money, and size
  • Cross sectional
  • Case control
  • Cohort
  • Two of the above
  • Case series
  • Cohort
  • Ecologic
  • Experimental
  • That component of accuracy reflecting the level of systematic error in the study.
  • The extent the results of a study are relevant to people who are not part of the study (representativeness).
  • The extent the results of a study are not attributable to bias or confounding.
  • Two of the above.
  • True
  • False
  • A best guess formulated using a statistic
  • What is currently believed, the status quo
  • An informal basis for a statistical test of association.
  • Drawing conclusions about the population based on a parameter
  • The use of descriptive statistics to draw conclusions about associations
  • The investigator decides between two hypotheses regarding a population, based on sampled data and probability to indicate the level of reliability in the conclusion.
  • True
  • False
  • True
  • False
  • Incidence
  • Mortality
  • Cure
  • Two of the above
  • All of the above
  • Relative risk
  • Risk ratio
  • Rate ratio
  • All of the above
  • Risk ratio
  • Attributable risk
  • Attributable risk percent
  • Population attributable risk
  • Population attributable risk percent
  • Risk ratio
  • Attributable risk
  • Attributable risk percent
  • Population attributable risk
  • Population attributable risk percent
  • Relative risk
  • Risk ratio
  • Rate ratio
  • Odds ratio
  • Level of significance
  • P value
  • Sample size
  • Two of the above
  • All of the above
  • Linear regression
  • Cox proportional hazards
  • Poisson regression
  • Logistic regression

33. Which of the following best defines causal inference?

  • A conclusion about the presence of a disease and reasons for its existence.
  • A conclusion about a population based on sampled data.
  • A conclusion about relationships supported by probability.
  • An indication of the level of reliability in the conclusion.
    • True
    • False
      • Consistency
      • Temporality
      • Biological plausibility
      • An experimental study design
        • True
        • False
          • A review of a real health events grouped together in time and location
          • A review of an unusual number of perceived health events grouped together in time and location
          • A review of an unusual number, real or perceived, health events grouped together in time and location
            • Confirm reported disease cases.
            • Determine if there is a higher than expected level of the disease.
            • Identify causal relationships.
            • Two of the above are true.
            • Three of the above are true.
              • True
              • False
                • Point source
                • Continuous source
                • Propagated source
                  • Person, place, and time
                  • Ecologic, individual, and time
                  • Age, period, and cohort
                  • Age and time
                    • Age effects
                    • Cohort effects
                    • Period effects
                    • Two of the above
                    • All of the above
                      • Person
                      • Place
                      • Time
                      • Latency period
                        • True
                        • False
                          • True
                          • False
                            • Cohort
                            • Case-control
                            • Case-crossover
                            • Cross-sectional
                            • The definition of environmental epidemiology includes the study of all of the following except:
                            • Which of the following best defines the personal versus ambient environment?
                            • Exposure information from a diary is an example of an indirect measure of exposure.
                            • Accurate assessment of outcome assumes which of the following?
                            • Which of the following best defines risk management?
                            • What word best represents the following: Anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, or molecular substances that are associated with the presence and severity of specific disease states and are detectable and measurable by a variety of methods including physical examination, laboratory assays and medical imaging.
                            • Biomarkers are traditionally used to measure which of the following?
                            • What is useful to avoid recall bias?
                            • Which of the following best defines study design?
                            • What study design is best for answering questions about exposure-disease relationships when the latency period is long?
                              • Cross sectional
                              • Ecologic
                              • Case-control
                              • Cohort
                              • Experimental
                            • Which of the following best defines case-crossover?
                            • Which of the following is not an observational study?
                              • Experimental study
                              • Case-control study
                              • Cohort study
                              • Ecologic study
                            • What are some ways to improve the internal validity of a study?
                            • Confounding is a threat to which of the following?
                            • Analytic statistics are used to measure and test hypothesized associations.
                            • What type of measure is appropriate for assessing the association between two continuous variables in a cross-sectional study?
                              • Relative risk
                              • Regression slop coefficient
                              • Correlation coefficient
                              • Two of the above
                              • Three of the above
                            • Which of the following statistics is used to indicate the percentage of disease cases attributed to their exposure?
                            • An important aim of environmental epidemiology is which of the following?
                            • What is the best study design for establishing a time sequence of events?
                            • It is not necessary to have a complete understanding of the causal factors and mechanisms to develop effective prevention and control measures.
                            • An advantage of maps is that they are not influenced by confounding factors that cluster spatially.
                            • Which of the following best defines age-adjusted rates?
                            • Which of the following study designs is best for establishing a cause-effect relationship?
                              • Case study
                              • Case-control study
                              • Ecologic
                              • Cohort
                            • Which of the following study designs is best when you want to study the relationship between a single exposure and several possible disease outcomes?
                            • Distribution
                            • Determinants
                            • Application to prevent and control disease
                            • Frequency and pattern
                            • All of the above are captured in the definition
                            • Routes of human exposure to contaminants through solid, liquid, and gaseous environments.
                            • The inner body is protected from outside contaminants by three barriers: the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, and the lungs.
                            • The avenue or mechanism by which it affects people.
                            • An environment where a person has control (e.g., diet) with the ambient environment where they have little or no control (e.g., pollution).
                            • True
                            • False
                            • A standard case definition
                            • Adequate reporting
                            • Both of the above
                            • Neither of the above
                            • A tool to integrate exposure and health effects in order to identify the potential health hazards in humans.
                            • An array of techniques to measure or estimate whether the exposure poses a threat to health or the ecosystem.
                            • Integration of recognized risk, risk assessment, development of strategies to manage risk, and mitigation of risk through managerial resources.
                            • Surveillance
                            • Monitoring
                            • Biomarker
                            • Determinant
                            • Absorption of an agent
                            • Bioaccumulation of metabolite within the body
                            • Hazard rate
                            • Two of the above are true
                            • All of the above are true
                            • Meta-analysis
                            • Diary records
                            • Disease registries
                            • A program that directs the researcher along the path of systematically collecting, analyzing, and interpreting results.
                            • An approach used in answering questions.
                            • An approach that may involve experimental assessment.
                            • An approach that involves collection and description of a public health problem.
                            • Presence of risk factor(s) for people with a condition is compared with that for people who do not.
                            • Exposure frequency during a window immediately prior to an outcome event is compared with exposure frequencies during a control time or times at an earlier period.
                            • People are followed over time to describe the incidence or the natural history of a condition. Assessment can also be made of risk factors for various conditions.
                            • Examine the relation between the intervention and outcome variables in a cohort of people followed over time.
                            • Matching
                            • Restriction
                            • Multiple regression
                            • Two of the above
                            • Three of the above
                            • Internal validity
                            • External validity
                            • True
                            • False
                            • Risk ratio
                            • Attributable risk
                            • Attributable risk percent
                            • Population attributable risk
                            • To identify environmentally caused public health problems.
                            • To identify reasons for public health problems.
                            • To develop effective prevention and control efforts.
                            • All of the above
                            • Case-control
                            • Cross-sectional
                            • Cohort
                            • Ecologic
                            • True
                            • False
                            • True
                            • False
                            • Weighted average of the age-specific rates.
                            • Proportional age averages of crude rates.
                            • Crude rates weighted by age and season.
                            • Age standardized populations.
                            • Case report
                            • Case series
                            • Case-control
                            • Cohort

                              71.An observational study may involve which of the following?

                              a. Case-control

                              b. Cohort

                              c. Cross-sectional

                              d. All of the above

                              72. What is the best study design to assess an accumulative dose?

                              73. Assessment of reported clusters should include all of the following except?

                              • Evaluation to determine whether an excess of the health problem has occurred
                              • Case evaluation to assure that a biological basis is present
                              • Evaluation of some or all of the suspected cases to describe the epidemiologic characteristics. These may be performed in order or concurrently.
                              • Identifying information on those supposedly affected
                              • All of the above

                              74. A time-series analysis may involve which of the following?

                              • Ecologic data
                              • Longitudinal data
                              • Both of the above
                              • Neither of the above

                                II. Calculation Questions (30 points) (use much space as needed)

                                • Indicate an appropriate type of epidemiological study design.
                                • Enter the data into a 2x2 table
                                • Calculate a risk of developing hepatitis A due to having eaten at restaurant X
                                • Interpret the data
                                  • Enter the data into a 2x2 table
                                  • Calculate a risk of developing Salmonella infection from eating tomatoes
                                  • Interpret the data

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